PHARMAFATE 1will focus on release patterns (from diurnal to seasonal patterns) and basic environmental degradation pathways (primary transformation, mineralisation) for a selection of six environmentally relevant pharmaceutical residues. Retention propert ies and release patterns of Benzylpenicillin, iodixanol derivatives (x-ray contrast agents), triclosan, diclofenac, ibuprofen, b-ethinyl-estradiol, paroxetine and caffeine including their major transformation products (biotic and abiotic) will be investig ated in three Norwegian sewage treatment plants (STP) representative for different climate conditions from mid-latitude to Arctic conditions: VEAS (Oslo), Tromsø and Longyearbyen (Svalbard) and the adjacent surface water. The selection of the compounds is based upon application statistics in Norway. As an integrated part of the study, a preliminary laboratory intercomparison study using exposed sludge samples will be performed prior to the field experiments. During the laboratory comparison the analytical methods will be evaluated and adapted. Continuous method development for optimization of the trace analytical chemical quantification methods will be an integrated part of the study. A first assessment on temperature dependent partitioning and degradatio n efficiency during treatment and release of pharmaceuticals through sewage and sewage sludge into the Norwegian aqueous environment will be presented for the Research Council of Norway. The project also aims to explore the behavior of selected pharmaceut icals in STPs by development and evaluation of an existing multimedia fate model. The project team intend to:
1.) Identify temperature dependent processes leading to environmental effects and variation in patterns, levels and distribution.
2.) El ucidate influent and release of pharmaceutical residues in the respective Norwegian STPs.
3.) Evaluate and model the fate of selected pharmaceuticals during STP processes and in the adjacent aqueous environment.