The vision of the BIGCCS Centre has been to enable sustainable power generation from fossil fuels based on cost-effective CO2 capture, safe transport, and underground storage of CO2. The Centre has developed new knowledge and technology required to accelerate deployment of large-scale CCS, through international co-operation. Research, development, demonstration, innovation, and value creation has been performed along the whole CO2 value chain.
CO2 capture constitutes the largest cost element in CCS; typically 60-80% of the added costs. Consequently, the greatest potentials for CCS cost reductions are found within reducing the energy use for capture processes. Capture technologies employ a wide range of processes that need to become more energy efficient, use less and more inexpensive materials, and operate with lower energy use. BIGCCS has focused on promising capture technologies for pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion. Significant progress has been made within:
? Direct CO2 separation; absorption with solvents and sorption on solid materials
? High temperature membranes; hydrogen and oxygen transport membranes
? Hydrogen combustion; optimal fuel injection and mixing with air for safety
? Oxy-fuel combustion and flue gas recirculation; design criteria and design tools
? Opportunities in industry and offshore; assessment of potentials for CO2 capture in other industries than power generation
? Integration of technologies; design of plants utilizing different kinds of capture technologies
In CO2 transport pipelines, larger rupture and severe damage is a potential problem. When pipelines are depressurized, the lower pressure could yield a significant cooling of the pipe. If the temperature becomes low enough, the pipe material may become brittle, causing cracks and ruptures. A coupled (fluid-structure) fracture assessment model has been developed for safe and cost-effective design and operation of CO2 pipelines.
Storage of CO2 remains the ultimate quest in CCS. Without safe storage, capture and transport of CO2 is useless. Estimations for necessary storage capacity vary widely; IEA however, suggests that 1000 Gt storage capacity will be needed within 2100. CO2 storage has been a major activity in BIGCCS. Important progress has been made within:
? Monitoring; knowledge and simulation tools for improved storage safety has been developed based on localization of the CO2 plume, quantification of CO2 volumes and early leakage detection.
? Reservoir containment; knowledge has been developed to enable CO2 storage in mature and depleted fields with EOR/EGR operations and in large aquifers through extensive geomechanical experimental and numerical/analytical models.
? Well integrity; CO2 storage safety and cost-efficiency are improved through a more detailed understanding of how, when, why and where leaks develop in/along wells penetrating CO2 storage reservoirs, with a special focus on injection wells and abandoned exploration wells.
? Enabling large-scale CO2 storage and EOR; improved understanding of CO2 storage sites with injection rates in the Mt/year range.
Viable CO2 value chains must be identified and assessed with respect to technical, economical, and environmental aspects, prior to large-scale deployment of CCS. Health and safety risks related to emerging technologies along the CO2 chain have been in focus. A consistent methodology is developed for evaluation of CO2 chains with respect to source-to-sink matching, infrastructure, and transport methods. The understanding of adequate solutions for reducing and managing risks in CCS is taken to a new level. The most important economic and political factors determining potential use of CCS technologies have been assessed.
In addition to the achievements from R&D activities, BIGCCS has produced a series of valuable and useful results, which will be of benefit to future CCS R&D activities:
? 26 PhDs, 8 Post.doc candidates, and more than 50 M.Sc. candidates available to industry and R&D institutions. The candidate production efficiency has been exceptional with only one PhD candidate drop-out, and five PhD candidates requiring a total of 10 months extra time.
? 31 new R&D projects are initiated based on BIGCO2/BIGCCS activity. This is nine CLIMIT KPN projects integrated in BIGCCS, and 22 independent spin-off projects.
? Significant investments in R&D infrastructure benefitting both BIGCCS and future research and development projects and facilitating international cooperation (ECCSEL).
? More than 600 publications/entries in the CRIStin database.
? 29 innovations documented and ranked according to the TRL (technology readiness level) scale.
? A series of 14 webinars conduc. during the spring of 2016. The webinars attracted close to 250 partici, almost half coming from industry partners.
?Partici.p in activi. of international networks, such as IEA, EU, EERA, etc., has given influence on R&D agenda beyond Norway.
Emphasis is put on advanced basic and applied research providing in-depth knowledge and methods pertaining to viable solutions for CO2 capture, CO2 transport, geological CO2 storage, and the integrated CO2 chain.
SP1 CO2 Capture
Task 1.1 CO2 separation: Development of precipitating solvent systems and high-temperature sorbents with improved capacity, minimum degradation and low environmental impact.
Task 1.2 High temperature membranes: Hydrogen membranes were the challenge is to increase membrane area a nd develop methods for module sealing and assembly.
Task 1.3 Hydrogen combustion: Low NOx combustors and fundamental reliability issues such as auto-ignition, flame flashback, and undesired flame stabilisation in the fuel-air mixer.
Task 1.4 Oxy-fuel and FGR Combustion: Fundamental knowledge for combustors burning fuels in airless stratified atmospheres containing oxygen and CO2. Task 1.5 Application to industry and offshore: Define and select case studies of particular potential for exploration and innov ation.
Task 1.6: Integrated assessment: Detailed unit design and modelling, systematic process design, and benchmarking.
SP2 CO2 Transport.Task 2.1 CO2 pipeline integrity: will develop an analysis metho for rapid crack propagation and arrest in CO2 pipeli nes including phase transition from liquid to gas phase CO2.
SP3 CO2 Storage. Task 3.1: Qualific of storage resources: Methods and procedures for qualification of identified pore volumes and seals for prospective storage sites.
Task 3.2: Storage behavior: Improved understanding of basic mechanisms for CO2 migration and behaviour in porous media.
Task 3.3: Monitoring, leakage and remediation: Improve CO2 storage safety by combining geophysi monit methods with reservoir fluid flow simulats.
SP4 CO2 chain.
Task 4.1: CO2 chain analysis: Methodology for CO2 chain analyses as basis for identifying cost-effective options, environ. impacts and safety.
Task 4.2: Economic and policy incentives for the CO2 Chain