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EUROPA-Europa i endring

Integration and division: Towards a segmented Europe?

Alternative title: null

Awarded: NOK 24.0 mill.

The primary objective of EuroDiv was to establish how the crisis is transforming Europe and the implications this has for Norway as a closely associated non-member of the EU. The project studied how greater differentiation may give rise to particular patterns of segmentation, with profound democratic and constitutional implications. This includes studies on Brexit. EuroDiv's first subproject on 'Law and democracy' has aimed at developing a better understanding of the characteristics, scope and implications of the Eurozone crisis. This is a precondition for a better understanding of the segmentation processes of the EU and its democratic and constitutional implications. The subproject had a particular focus on Norway's relationship to the EU and how this develops in light of the crisis. A second subproject studied the emergent European executive order: a multilevel EU administration consisting of supranational bodies (primarily the European Commission, the European External Action Service and EU agencies), and national bodies (primarily regulatory authorities). This administration also includes the EEA countries and Switzerland. A third subproject studied how reforms in the design of the monetary union have been implemented in the wake of the crisis. If this leads to segmentation, what does such a development imply for the sustainability of responses to the crisis? What does it entail for Norway's position in the European economic and political order? The fourth subproject has looked at whether developments within the field of foreign and security policy point in the direction of segmentation or rather towards centralization and democratization. What is the position of Norway within it? This research group has developed an analytical framework for assessing the direction of the integration process, and collected relevant data and undertaken analysis of the roles of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council. The project has included numerous researchers and resulted in a significant number of publications, in total 7 books, more than 60 book chapters and about 90 journal articles, in addition to numerous other texts and media contributions. One of EuroDiv's key findings is how states closely affiliated with the EU, but which have chosen not to be full members, across numerous policy fields experience negative effects on their legal and political self-governing abilities. EuroDiv proves right the assumption that the closer the affiliation a non-member state has with the EU, the more susceptible to hegemony the relationship appears to be. In the case of Norway, EuroDiv for example finds that Norwegian democracy is undermined due to a peculiar relationship with the EU, caught in an 'integration trap' with no possibility of escape. Membership is impossible due to prevailing EU skepticism and termination of the EEA agreement is impossible because of no realistic alternatives. EuroDiv researchers have presented their research at numerous academic conferences, workshops and other events. Furthermore, EuroDiv has organized several interdisciplinary events engaging scholars from all over Europe on topics such as populism, European citizenship, the refugee crisis, models of association with the EU, and the future of Norway-EU relations. EuroDiv has significantly contributed to strengthen the interdisciplinary academic network in the area of EU studies among European scholars. Thanks to EuroDiv, ARENA has been invited to several new research networks, such as the Jean Monnet networks PELEEA for studies on the consequences of Brexit on the EEA and VIADUCT for studies on EU-Turkey relations. EuroDiv has also been a catalyst for new ideas and has resulted in several new research projects. For example, ARENA's newest H2020 project EU Differentiation, Dominance and Democracy (EU3D) partly builds on the theoretical platform and ideas developed by EuroDiv. The same goes for PLATO (H2020 ITN) and BENCHMARK (NFR). EuroDiv has disseminated its research to several target audiences through blogs, social media, radio and newspapers and other printed media. For example, EuroDiv's research on EU non-members has proved especially useful for analyzing the possible options and consequences for the UK after leaving the EU, making ARENA researchers attractive experts on Brexit. Several publications have received significant attention. ARENA researchers have advised the UK Parliament on Brexit, and on the request of the Scottish Parliament submitted a report about whether Norway?s experience would be of relevance for the current debate on the future relations between London and the UK?s nations, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The report underlined that Norway's experiences were not that relevant for the UK post-Brexit. EuroDiv has moved the research frontier and today enables us to significantly better understand the EU's crises, differentiation, and the dominance relationships they give rise to.

Prosjektets forskere har stått for omfattende formidling til alle prosjektets målgrupper og har påvirket faglige debatter men også formidlet funn til politikere og byråkrater i EU-systemet, nasjonale organer og lokalforvaltning i tillegg til vanlige borgere og studenter. EuroDiv har bidratt med kunnskap om hvordan krisen i Eurosonen forandrer Europa, og hvilke følger dette har for Norge. Prosjektet har sett systematisk på hva som er konsekvensene for demokrati og rettsstat av at EU-landene er integrerte i ulik grad. EuroDiv har bidratt med faglig nyvinning, har utviklet en hypotese om segmentering og hegemoni og et sett av forklaringsmekanismer. Prosjektet utviklet nye begreper og hypoteser, kombinerte empiriske studier med normative analyser, brakte fram ny innsikt om integrasjon og desintegrasjon i Europa. EuroDiv har bidratt til at vi bedre kan forstå EUs kriser, differensiering og de dominansrelasjoner som de gir opphav til. Prosjektet har flyttet forskningsfronten.

EuroDiv is concerned with how the crisis is transforming Europe and the implications for Norway, across all four areas of the call: law and democracy, economic development and integration, cultural transformation, and foreign and security policy. The cris is calls for a re-examination of the assumption in much of EU research that integration is, if not quite uniform, then at least quite unidirectional. EuroDiv responds with an hypothesis of segmentation and a set of explanatory mechanisms. By segmentation we mean a particular form of differentiation, a particular combination of functional and territorial differentiation, with certain built-in biases linked to how participants share certain forms of knowledge, situational understandings, values, and problem definitions. If the present crisis contributes to further segment the European political order, it will render explicit that the EU is not about different speeds but about members occupying permanently different statuses. With a particular view to democr acy, EuroDiv analyses how firmly entrenched segmentation is as a systemic trait, and the consequences this has for Norway. Segmented orders may be undemocratic and highly unstable. EuroDiv therefore examines possible countervailing forces and factors. A re these conducive to democratization and constitutionalisation? Since EuroDiv analyses processes that both involve integration and disintegration, and their possible co-existence, it establishes a broad-based approach with a repertoire of mechanisms such as claims-making, threat-based bargaining, deliberation/arguing, framing, copying, diffusion, and path-dependency. In certain combinations and under certain conditions distinct bundles of mechanisms may sustain both integration and democracy; in other co mbinations and under other conditions (distinct configurations of) mechanisms may undermine or weaken one or the other.

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EUROPA-Europa i endring