Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is necessary to stay within the climate goals of the Paris-agreement. The most mature post-combustion CO2 capture technologies is based on amine absorbents. Given the scale of implementation of post-combustion CCS, it is inevitable that there will be small discharges of amines to the atmosphere during operation. Amines degrade in the atmosphere and form potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines and nitramines. The Norwegian Institute for Public Health has placed an upper limit to the total amount of nitrosamines and nitramines in air and drinking water to ensure minimal or negligible risk of cancer for the public from exposure to these substances. Exhaustive knowledge of amine atmospheric chemistry is needed to place strict limits on acceptable emissions. The project has provided new fundamental scientific data on several technologically important amines and has doubled the existing atmospheric chemistry data base on amines.
The Environmental Sciences Section (Department of Chemistry, UiO) has strengthened its international reputation, expanded its network and increased cooperation with Leeds University, York University, Aix-Marseille University and Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung. The project results have been implemented in ongoing research at TCM, including Leading Edge Instrument Development.
Implementation of amine-based Carbon Capture technology results in small, but yet significant emission of amines to the environment. The concern is that the amines emitted subsequently will undergo photo-oxidation resulting in formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines and nitramines. The Norwegian Institute for Public Health has placed an upper limit to the total amount of nitrosamines and nitramines in air and drinking water to ensure minimal or negligible risk of cancer for the public from exposure to these substances. To realize such low ambient concentrations requires intimate knowledge of the atmospheric chemistry and strict limits on the allowed amine emissions. The atmospheric chemistry database is inadequate for several technologically important amines, and it is proposed to remedy this gap in knowledge by studies of AMP, piperazine, ethylenediamine, 1,3-propanediamine, and tert-butylamine.
The compounds will be studied in the EUPHORE photochemical reactor in Valencia and in Oslo employing smaller smog chambers and a novel Flow-tube reactor. State-of-the-art analytical equipment will be employed in the experiments. Internationally acknowledged experts from the universities in Oslo, Gothenburg, Innsbruck, Lyon, Leeds and York will participate in the EUPHORE experiments.
The project will provide i) quantitative data on the primary and secondary product distribution in the atmospheric photo-oxidation of technologically relevant amines; ii) detailed photo-oxidation schemes and gas phase chemistry models for the amines; iii) thermodynamic properties of amine salts necessary for atmospheric aerosol modeling.