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SAMANSVAR-Ansvarlig innovasjon og bedriftenes samfunnsansvar

Regulating smart mobility: Addressing challenges and opportunities in the digital transition of mobility

Alternative title: Hvordan kan myndighetene regulere smart mobilitet? Utfordringer og muligheter i den teknologiske utviklingen av mobilitet

Awarded: NOK 6.6 mill.

New technologies can disrupt existing market structures entirely. Innovations such as autonomous vehicles and applications for travel information and shared mobility are piloted around the world. Future users may benefit from services available on demand, in the form of seamless systems of clean, efficient and flexible mobility. However, there is a risk that the transformation fails to achieve public benefit and instead give rise to negative externalities. The REGSMART project has analysed such opportunities and challenges that public authorities face in the on-going transition to smart mobility. This involves document studies, data analysis, interviews, surveys and workshops. Scenario development and stakeholder and citizen perspectives were used to strengthen the deliberative and anticipatory approach of the research process. Through its Finnish and Swedish partners, the project also contains a comparative element. The project's first scientific work package (WP) conducted a comparative analysis of legislation and organization of relevance for smart mobility in Norway and Finland together with a mapping of existing and emerging smart mobility services in these countries. A resulting manuscript, "Nordic Experiences with Smart Mobility: Emerging Services and Regulatory Frameworks" was published in Transportation Research Procedia. In its mission to involve citizens and stakeholders, REGSMART has organized scenario workshops and citizen panels focused on future daily travel. Two dimensions became central: degree of automation and public vs. private vehicle ownership. The workshops led to the publication of a report at the Norwegian Board of Technology, "Daily travel in 2030 - scenarios for urban transport". A WP on data policy will result in a forthcoming report, 'Sustainable data policies for smart mobility' and a companion scientific manuscript "Control and access of data in smart mobility", which is submitted to the journal Nordic Intellectual Property Law Review. These works investigate how legal arrangements including GDPR can attend to privacy issues, data protection, data ownership, access to data, and safeguard citizens' rights as data producers. They describe smart mobility trends and possible future scenarios and depict essential provisions of the GDPR from the perspective of smart mobility - and apply them to scenarios. They also provide additional perspectives on the regulation of data, such as intellectual property and competition law. A separate WP has focused on regulatory challenges and dilemmas in light of smart mobility. The WP coincided with the global eruption of shared e-scooters, which constituted a perfect case of smart mobility and regulatory challenges and opportunities. The work has led to a book chapter "Micromobility - regulatory challenges and opportunities" in Sørensen and Paulsson (eds., 2020) "Shaping smart mobility futures. Governance and policy instruments in times of sustainability transitions", and a scientific journal article "Patterns of E-Scooter Use in Combination with Public Transport" in Transport Findings (Fearnley, Johnsson & Berge, 2020). This work has provided the basis for extensive dissemination during 2020 and 2021. It also formed the basis for a major research project MikroReg, which brings together all shared e-scooter stakeholders in joint effort to formulate future regulatory strategies for the sector. A spin-off result is a special issue of scientific journal Built Environment on "Micromobility and urban space" where REGSMART's project manager has acted as guest editor. A next WP has studied regional public transport authorities see their role in the smart mobility transition. This has led to the paper, "Innovation through collaboration: Advantages and disadvantages of public transport authorities being MaaS providers. The Norwegian case", which will be presented to the National Political Science Conference in June 2022 before it shall be submitted to a scientific journal. REGSMART's final WP is a synthesis and outlook on how public authorities can be better equipped to plan for emerging user-centric technologies and business models. The following papers and scientific journal manuscripts are in the pipeline from this work: "Governing smart mobility: what is the optimal level of (de)centralization? Preferences, externalities, and regulatory capacity"; and "Multi-level governance and new mobility solutions". REGSMART organized an international webinar spring 2021 in cooperation with the project's network partners Public Transport Norway and ITS Norway.

Nettverksbygging: Vi har etablert god kontakt for fremtidig samarbeid. Dette har allerede materialisert seg ved at VTT-partnere har bidratt til tidsskrift der prosjektleder var gjesteredaktør, at prosjektleder har bidratt i bokutgivelse hos partner VTI, og samarbeid mellom TØI og brukerpartnerne ITS Norge, Kollektivtrafikkforeningen og Teknologirådet. Faglig utvikling: Alle prosjektmedarbeiderne har fått meritterende vitenskapelige publiseringer gjennom prosjektet Nye prosjekter: Et stort Innovasjonsprosjekt i offentlig sektor (MikroReg - Offentlig regulering for effektiv, sikker og bærekraftig mikromobilitet) er direkte resultat av REGSMART. Samfunnsendringer: Prosjektet har direkte bidratt til regelverk for delt mikromobilitet (elsparkesykler) i flere norske byer, til Statens vegvesens lovforarbeid for små elektriske kjøretøy og til OECD (ITF) sine veiledere for regulering av delt mikromobilitet «Safe Micromobility» (2020) og Micromobility equity and sustainability (2020).

The digital transformation of mobility is happening now - new services are emerging and the EUs General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) raises new questions regarding sustainable data policies. To ensure outcomes for the benefit of society and avoid negative externalities of technological change, e.g. increased demand for car travels when autonomous vehicles are in operation, it is crucial that public authorities pro-actively plan for the era of Smart mobility. REGSMART aims to make public authorities better equipped to plan for emerging user-centric technologies by addressing opportunities and challenges related to: 1) Sustainable data policies including privacy, data collection, ownership of data, security and ethics, 2) Regulation of the smart mobility market including competition, public service obligations, taxes, certification and licensing, 3) Governance of smart mobility including new roles and strategies for public transport authorities, resource allocation, decision-making, coordination and congruence between business and administration. In order to address social dilemmas and how people are affected by them, we will use established methods for involving citizens and stakeholders. Citizen involvement will complement and challenge the preconceptions of the researchers and maintain a feedback loop between citizens, stakeholders and researchers throughout the project period. The project brings together an interdisciplinary research team from the Institute of Transport Economics, the University of Oslo Department of Private Law, VTT in Finland and VTI in Sweden. The team also includes the Norwegian Board of Technology, that has considerable experience with the RRI-framework and use of participatory and anticipatory methods for assessing technology. The sub-contracted user partners ITS Norway and Public Transport Norway will give access to informants and to established networks, improve the impact of the project and facilitate communication of the results.

Funding scheme:

SAMANSVAR-Ansvarlig innovasjon og bedriftenes samfunnsansvar