Our society is faced with climate and environmental challenges in all sectors, including the maritime. In Norway the ambition is to stimulate green growth in the maritime industry by increasing the use of low-and zero emission fuels and introducing new environmental-friendly solutions when the technology is mature and ready for implementation. Hydrogen driven fuel cells, where hydrogen is produced with zero emissions, can be an alternative solution for several maritime applications.
The overall goal of the H2Maritime-project is to perform research and build new competence on the use of hydrogen and fuel cells in the maritime sector. The main objective with the project is to establish design criteria and operational philosophies for hydrogen bunkering and refueling systems and fuel cell power systems for propulsion. New methods, models, and simulation tools will be developed and used to provide more scientific and technical insight into challenges related to:
1. Fast refueling (>2000 kg/hour) of high pressure (250-350 bar) gaseous hydrogen into large onboard hydrogen storage units (>150 kg/unit) suitable for small maritime vessels
2. Efficient bunkering of low-pressure liquid hydrogen and operation of large on-board liquid hydrogen storage tanks (several tones) suitable for larger maritime vessels
3. Efficient operation of large (1-10 MW) maritime hydrogen-based fuel cell systems for propulsion
4. Safety issues related to gaseous and liquid hydrogen systems for maritime applications
The H2Maritime-project is a collaboration between Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), The University of South-East Norway (USN), The Norwegian Maritime Authority, and five industry partners (Equinor, ABB Marine, Havyard Design and Solutions, Umoe Advanced Composites, and Lloyd?s Register). IFE is the Project Leader.
In 2020 the maritime cluster in Norway strengthened their work to establish new pre-commercial hydrogen projects. ABB has strengthened their collaboration with Ballard on the development of MW-class fuel cells for ships; Ballard has now developed and certified a 200 kW fuel cell system for maritime applications. Equinor has established a project collaboration in Western Norway with BKK, Air Liquide, and Wilhelmsen, among others, on the development of liquid hydrogen value chains for maritime applications. Havyard recently established a new company named Havyard Hydrogen AS that aim to supply large-scale solutions for fuel cells and hydrogen for ships. Hence, the research topics in the H2Maritime-project are becoming more and more relevant.
The research work in the project has progressed well in 2020, despite the COVID-19 pandemic. A simulation tool for calculation of pressure and temperature and CFD-calculations for fast filling of hydrogen has been established (master student projects at USN). Simulation tools for thermodynamic calculations on hydrogen have also been developed in two different programs (USN and IFE). There has been performed a thorough literature review on hydrogen safety (IFE) and preparations have been made to conduct a case study on the use of pressurized hydrogen in a vessel. Partners in the project (USN, IFE, Lloyd?s Register) have also participated in a national reference group and evaluation of experimental tests on liquid hydrogen in Spadeadam (UK). A simulation model for maritime energy systems has been developed and adapted to data from a ferry, which gives the possibility to analyze different energy management concepts (PhD at NTNU). There has also been established an international collaboration with an external PhD-student and research group at the University of Genova in Italy on testing and validation of fuel cells for maritime applications.
A significant reduction of the emissions can be achieved by introducing alternative, environmentally-friendly fuels in operation of the maritime fleet. Hydrogen produced with zero emissions can be an alternative solution for several maritime applications. The H2Maritime-project will focus on research and development of competence, methods and technology for the use of hydrogen and fuel cells in the maritime. The project consists of 3 research partners, 5 industry partners and one public organization, and is organized in three research areas (work packages):
1. Hydrogen bunkering and storage: The focus in this project is on the supply of liquid hydrogen (LH2) from a bunkering place on land to a vessel, either directly as low-pressure liquid hydrogen or indirectly as high-pressure gaseous hydrogen (GH2). The primary objectives here will be to develop design and operation strategies for efficient and safe refueling and bunkering systems for maritime applications.
2. Hydrogen safety: Safety strategies must be implemented to ensure safe operation during refueling and bunkering of hydrogen. Depressurization of gas during emergency situations, for example, must ensure the lowest risk possible. Specific codes and standards for hydrogen refueling and storage only cover small systems for hydrogen vehicles. The primary objective here will be to provide recommendations on how to design safe GH2 and LH2 refueling/bunkering and storage systems.
3. Fuel cells systems: The focus in H2Maritime is on large fuel cell (FC) systems for ships. There does not exist standard maritime FC systems, nor any guidelines for design and operation of hybrid FC systems for maritime applications. There is also a lack of knowledge on how to optimize the EMS and FC system controls with respect to fuel cell lifetime. The primary objective here will be to build in-depth knowledge on how to design and operate 1-10 MW maritime hybrid FC power systems.