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SAMRISK-2-Samfunnssikkerhet og risiko

LAW22JULY: RIPPLES (Rights, Institutions, Procedures, Participation, Litigation:Embedding Security)

Alternative title: LAW22JULY: Rettigheter, institusjoner, prosedyrer, deltagelse og rettsprosesser etter terror

Awarded: NOK 12.0 mill.

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Project Period:

2020 - 2024


Combining socio-legal approaches, doctrinal law, ethics and urban studies, this project examines legal ripple effects of the 22 July attack in Norway, with a comparative study of terror attacks in Manchester. The project is developed around three work packages on urban security and reconstruction of the Oslo government quarters, the role of welfare provisions for survivors and their relatives and the bereaved; and relationship between the rule of law and societal security. The first phase of the project has focused on the legal mobilization (by special interest groups) against the Government's decision to demolish "Y-blokka", and the legal contestations around the re-building of the Government quarters. In tandem with these processes, a community based association consisting of the neighbors successfully went to court to stop a planned monument at Utøykaia. In parallel, the public hearing after the Manchester Arena attack commenced in September, with survivors seeking and subsequently being denied the status as "core participants" in the hearing. These parallell juridifications of conflicts around memory, citizenship and culture is highly significant and has moved transitional justice into the ambit of the project. The Covid-19 outbreak has impacted significantly on all aspects of the project. However, the Norwegian and the UK government response to the pandemic and attendant discussions of the rule of law provide a highly interesting foil for contemplating the balance between the ordinary and the extraordinary in the legal responses to violent extremism.

22 July 2011, Anders Behring Breivik massacred 77 people in a terrorist attack commonly referred to in Norway as '22 July'. The State responded with a rule of law approach to rebuild societal security. Yet beyond the criminal trial, the legal responses, including bureaucratic practices and regulatory techniques, have not been researched. To enhance future preparedness and public accountability, this knowledge gap must be bridged. Asking 'what is the role of legal responses in rebuilding and strengthening societal security after violent extremist attacks', this interdisciplinary, qualitative project develops a conceptual and empirical basis for exploring the legal ripple effects of 22 July, implicating multiple fields of public and private law. A study of responses to terror attacks in Manchester in 1992, 1996 and 2017 provides a comparative frame. The project is developed around three work packages: 1. Urban security: The role of law in the reconstruction of post-terrorism space and the securitization of urban space and urban life 2. Citizenship and rights: The role of welfare provision (livelihood/compensation) as contributors to societal security and resilience 3. Rule of law: political economy, societal security, and the resilience of the rule of law WP 1-3 will produce 6 case studies serving as the basis for articles, policy briefs, blog posts, op eds and a pedagogic pilot concept for higher education. Project partners are PRIO, Queen Mary UCL, U Warwick and U Manchester. The project team and advisory board consist of leading socio-legal, legal, security and urban studies scholars, with broad experience in research and policy-making on 22 July, societal security, and welfare and urban security implications of terrorism, and PhD and MAs. The objective is to produce high-quality scholarship and effective policy advice as well as publicly accessible documentation of the legal responses to these events, engaging all stakeholders in knowledge-based conversations.

Publications from Cristin

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SAMRISK-2-Samfunnssikkerhet og risiko