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FINNUT-Forskning og innovasjon i utdanningssektoren

KriT - Kritisk tenkning i barneskolen: Utvikling av en didaktikk for elever på barnetrinnet med vekt på nyheter og barnelitteratur

Alternative title: Critical Thinking in Primary Education: A didactic approach for critical thinking in primary schools based on childrens literature and news

Awarded: NOK 7.0 mill.

Project Number:

309873

Application Type:

Project Period:

2020 - 2023

Location:

Critical thinking is increasingly focalized in education. In the multidisciplinary project KriT, Critical Thinking in Primary Education, researchers and teachers collaborate on concretising what critical thinking entails, and how one may foster it in primary school. The aim of the project is to develop a didactic approach for critical thinking in primary schools based on children's literature and news. In the autumn 2020, a renewed curriculum was implemented in the Norwegian school system, with revised curricula in all subjects. The purpose of the revision was to make the content reflect the needs of the 21st century, where an ever stronger information flow can make children and young people vulnerable. In KriT we investigate how teachers can use news and children's literature as starting points for critical thinking. KriT uses a design-based research method with three cycles. Each cycle consists of the development of didactic principles for critical thinking, development and testing of teaching resources, as well as data collection and data analysis. Three seminars have been conducted in each cycle. In the first seminar, fundamental questions such as how critical thinking can be understood and adapted to a diverse classroom are discussed. The second seminar is devoted to creating lesson plans, based on a specific picture book or news article. Finally, in the third seminar, which is held after the teaching has been conducted, teachers and researchers discuss their experiences from the lessons and in what ways signs of critical thinking could be observed in the classroom. Research and experiences from one cycle contribute to further development in the next cycle. The project follows the same pupils through all three cycles. The KriT-project is now in its second year and in the third and final cycle. Experiences from cycles 1 and 2 indicate that picture books can engage pupils at both lower and higher grades in critical thinking. Starting from texts and pictures, the pupils have, for example practiced taking different perspectives - a central feature of critical thinking. The news article about the Norwegian Prime minister who broke the COVID-19 regulations when celebrating her birthday engaged pupils in Grade 3. The teacher involved the pupils in conversations about the topic by comparing it to their own birth celebrations during the COVID-19 period. The classroom discussions provided interesting data for analysing pupils' argumentation and critical thinking. Preliminary results indicate that topics close to pupils' everyday lives can trigger their critical thinking. In general, the data from the first two cycles indicate that the conversations in the classrooms are characterised by shorter exchanges between teacher and pupils. Shorter lessons and attempts at including all pupils in the discussions are probably not the best starting points for critical thinking, as this results in superficial argumentation. This assumption is followed up on in cycle 3. We also see that critical thinking and in-depth learning are closely connected. To be able to think critically, the pupils need knowledge about the topic. Furthermore, the topic must be relevant for the pupils, enabling them to view the issue from more than one perspective and explore relevant sources in depth. The KriT-project is conducted in collaboration with the National Centre of Multicultural Education (NAFO), Norwegian Children's Book Institute (NBI) and the Norwegian broadcasting company (NRK). This collaboration will continue in year 2. This far, the collaboration with NRK has resulted in two news broadcasts for the youngest pupils, which also have been used by teachers in the project. Furthermore, we have had fruitful discussions with representatives from NBI and NAFO about picture books and including multicultural pupils in teaching, respectively. These discussions will continue in the final years of the project. An aim of the project is to develop teaching resources for critical thinking. These will be presented on the KriT blog in 2022. Here, teachers, researchers and parents will be able to draw on our experiences from the project. In June 2022, we will host a conference about critical thinking in primary school, where results from the project will be jointly presented by teachers and researchers.

Høsten 2020 skal det fornyede læreplanverket (LK20) tre i kraft i norsk skole, og det kommer nye læreplaner i alle fag. Med LK20 endres også definisjonen av kompetansebegrepet til å ha et tydeligere fokus på elevenes evne til å reflektere og tenke kritisk enn det som har vært i tidligere læreplaner, og det er derfor behov for didaktisk kompetanse og forskning på området. Prosjektet KriT er et samarbeid mellom Utdanningsetaten i Oslo Kommune (UDE) og OsloMet – storbyuniversitetet. Sammen med våre partnere NRK Super (Norsk Rikskringkasting), Nasjonalt senter for flerkulturell opplæring (NAFO) og Norsk barnebokinstitutt (NBI) har vi som hovedmål å utvikle en didaktikk for kritisk tenkning for 1-7. trinn med utgangspunkt i nyheter og barnelitteratur. Prosjektet vil etablere didaktiske prinsipper for kritisk tenkning som vektlegger en pedagogisk væremåte og en måte å forholde seg til elever uavhengig av alder, identitet og sosial og kulturell bakgrunn. I KriT skal vi undersøke hvordan læreren kan bruke barnelitteratur og nyheter i arbeidet med kritisk tenkning. Vi skal også undersøke karakteristiske trekk ved samtaler som fremmer kritisk tenkning, utvikle indikatorer for kritisk tenkning fra 1.-7. trinn, styrke elevenes egen argumentasjon og evne til å vurdere verbal og visuell argumentasjon, samt undersøke hvordan læreren kan arbeide med kritisk tenkning når elevene har et svakt grunnlag i norsk. KriT vil anvende en design-basert forsknings metode, noe som innebærer at forskningen vil foregå i sykluser. Hver syklus består av utvikling av didaktiske prinsipper for kritisk tenkning, utvikling av undervisningsressurser, utprøving og justering av undervisningsressurser samt datainnsamling og dataanalyse. Forskning og erfaring fra én syklus vil bidra til videreutvikling av didaktiske prinsipper og undervisningsressurser i neste syklus. Dette innebærer et tett samarbeid med lærerne som er involvert i prosjektet.

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FINNUT-Forskning og innovasjon i utdanningssektoren