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DEMO2000-Prosj.ret tekn.utv. petro.virk

Green Ammonia fuelled four-stroke Engines on the Norwegian Continental Shelf

Alternative title: Grønn Amoniakk som drivstoff i Forbrenningsmotor

Awarded: NOK 20.0 mill.

Project Number:


Application Type:

Project Period:

2020 - 2023


Partner countries:

Development highlights of 2021 In the winter and spring of 2021, a lot of activity has revolved around the development of safety systems related to ammonia combustion tests. The development of air-cleaning systems (air-washers), ammonia scrubbers, detection systems and storage tank irrigation systems has been essential to obtain the necessary permits from safety authorities both in Finland and in Norway. During June 2021, the first full-scale tests of ammonia combustion were performed in Wärtsilä's test laboratory in Vaasa. This marks the first step in the "twin development process" where test experiments are carried out in the laboratory in Finland, then to be verified and insights improved through long-term tests in the Demo 2000 project at Stord. The initial tests took place by mixing ammonia and diesel fuel external of the engine, then injecting it into the engine cylinders at high pressure. The first test, which was carried out between 30 June and 1 July, gave promising results in terms of the amount of ammonia mixtures, combustion efficiency, and the amount of the emissions. Development highlights of 2022 During the year 2022 the main activity in the catapult centre has been to finalise the construction of ammonia storage tank system, the fuel preparation system, the safety systems including ammonia detection and exhaust treatment systems. The test programme has been developed in detail and comprises several series of measurements related to fuel efficiency, different greenhouse gas measurements in the exhaust and development of operational procedures, including handling of ammonia in the fuel supply system after emergency shut down and before startup of the engine. This development work implied extensive Hazops related to the construction of the ventilation mast for dispersions of residual ammonia from the system as well as commissioning of process shutdown systems and nitrogen purging systems. 2nd of December 2022 the first bunkering of 13 tons of ammonia from a truck successfully performed at Heiane, Stord, and marked an important milestone. Later in December 2022 commissioning of ammonia fuel supply system including startup of the engine was completed, implying that ammonia was mixed into natural gas and utilised as fuel for the engine and as such the first operation of an ammonia fuelled engine at catapult centre was completed. This completion is enabling the Demo 2000 project to enter the phase of full-scale long-term testing of the ammonia fuelled engine in 2023. Development highlights in 2023 During the late autumn of 2022, the ammonia tank system containing 23m3 of ammonia was put into operation and the first bunkering operation carried out. Gas detection systems, nitrogen purge systems and the ammonia fuel transfer systems as well as necessary safety routines were tested in practice. The operators both from Wärtsilä and from the Catapult Center gained valuable learning and eventually a thorough knowledge of the properties and risks of the new fuel. Over the new year 2023, the commissioning of the engine's fuel supply system continued, which included both ammonia evaporation systems and control of the storage tank's internal pressure based on excess heat from the engine's cooling water system. The engine tests also required that the diesel supply system and a natural gas supply from the local network at Stord to be commissioned. In February 2023, full-scale testing of the internal combustion engine could begin, initially in a tri-fuel configuration where a mixture of ammonia gas and natural gas was supplied to the engine in low-pressure gaseous form as the main fuel, also with traditional diesel as pilot fuel. These tests were complicated in their execution due to all the possible mixture ratios and the different properties of the fuels. The purpose of these tests has been to determine the combustion efficiency that can be achieved, the composition of the exhaust gases with regard to greenhouse gases and, not least, the effect the ammonia fuel has on the various materials in the internal combustion engine. Later in the spring of 2023, the tests have focused on ammonia in low-pressure gaseous form as the main fuel with traditional diesel as pilot and additional fuel (fuel share). These tests have given very good answers to what mixing ratios can be achieved, combustion efficiency to be expected and what can be achieved from the catalytic exhaust gas purification system. The test program include different catalytic cleaning systems for unburned ammonia, NOx and laughing gas. During the test period, the full-scale testing has required more than 40,000 kg of ammonia! In the last week of June, all the partners in the project gathered for a "project wrap-up workshop" in Wärtsilä's premises at Heiane in Stord, where important experiences, new insights and feedback on the collaboration were thoroughly discussed and shared between the partners.

Successful demonstration of running ammonia through fuel gas handling system and theoretically developing the most effective means of storing Ammonia onboard North Sea Installations: The Ammonia demonstration test program has been carried out on a medium-speed engine commonly used in the PSV fleet and drilling applications on the Norwegian continental shelf. The testing has been aimed at both the new build and retrofit market. Demonstration of the safety of DF engines in regard to Ammonia: Design of a safe ammonia fuel storage and supply system including HAZID and HAZOP studies. Developing ammonia bunkering, operation, and maintenance procedures. The system has been approved by Norwegian and Finnish safety authorities. Demonstration of the efficiency of powering a DF engine with Ammonia: Testing operation on diesel, natural gas and ammonia in different blending ratios, indicating optimal engine operation. A commercially viable Ammonia 4S DF engine for the market: Wartsila W25 ammonia engine will be available for the market on December 2023

Funding scheme:

DEMO2000-Prosj.ret tekn.utv. petro.virk