Back to search

ENERGIX-Stort program energi

Safe Hydrogen Implementation: Pre-normative research for Ships (SH2IPS)

Alternative title: Sikker implementering av hydrogen: Pre-normativ forskning for skip (SH2IPS)

Awarded: NOK 5.4 mill.

Project Number:

326281

Application Type:

Project Period:

2021 - 2026

Funding received from:

Location:

SH2IPS is an interdisciplinary project where the aim is to provide science-based recommendations for an international regulatory framework that can facilitate the safe deployment of ships powered by hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels. To enable the global energy transition, hydrogen is expected to play a significant role as energy carrier. Existing technologies can convert energy from renewable and non-renewable sources to hydrogen, hydrogen can be stored and transported in compressed, liquid or chemical form, and fuel cells, engines or turbines can convert hydrogen to electrical or mechanical energy and heat on demand. At the same time, the safety-related properties of hydrogen imply that it is not straightforward to demonstrate that the risks associated with hydrogen systems are comparable to or lower than for conventional fuels. Hydrogen has an extremely low flash point, and hydrogen-air mixtures are extremely reactive and can be ignited by mechanisms that otherwise do not represent an immediate threat for fuels such as petrol, diesel and natural gas. Modern hydrogen systems on ships entail emerging technologies, hydrogen safety is an active area of research with major knowledge gaps, and accidents can have major influence on public perception and acceptance of energy technologies. The existing regulatory framework for ships represents a major bottleneck for the deployment of hydrogen technologies in the maritime sector. To this end, SH2IPS will develop fundamental knowledge and competence on critical ignition and combustion phenomena, explore novel solutions for explosion protection, and critically evaluate the strength of knowledge in risk assessments for hydrogen systems. Widespread use of hydrogen in society represents a unique opportunity for Norway as a leading maritime nation and net exporter of energy commodities, and the results from the project may enhance the competitiveness of trade and industry and accelerate the transition to a low-emission society.

SH2IPS is an interdisciplinary project that entails groundbreaking research in an area of critical importance for the global energy transition, as well as for Norway as a leading maritime nation and net exporter of energy commodities. Hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels can play an important role in the global energy transition, but efficient and safe implementation will require suitable regulations, codes and standards (RCS). Part A of the IGF Code from the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) outlines general goals and functional requirements that apply to hydrogen and other low-flashpoint fuels (LFFs), including §3.2.1: “The safety, reliability and dependability of the systems shall be equivalent to that achieved with new and comparable conventional oil-fuelled main and auxiliary machinery”. Relevant LFFs for maritime applications include natural gas, hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, ethanol and liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs). Part A-1 of the IGF Code provides specific requirements for natural gas, including liquefied natural gas (LNG), and IMO has developed interim guidelines for methanol and ethanol. The safety-related properties of hydrogen imply that it is not straightforward to document compliance with the IGF Code through the prescribed alternative design process. To this end, the vision for the SH2IPS project is to contribute to the development of a consistent regulatory framework for the use of hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels as the primary energy carriers for merchant ships. The project will utilise state-of-the-art experimental facilities at UiB to develop fundamental knowledge and competence on critical ignition and combustion phenomena, as well as novel solutions for explosion protection. SH2IPS also entails a critical evaluation of the strength of knowledge in risk assessments for hydrogen systems. The deliverables include science-based recommendations for relevant RCS and dedicated activities on stakeholder involvement and dissemination.

Activity:

ENERGIX-Stort program energi