Global shipping is facing a future where the emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants must be substantially reduced. The current use of fuel in shipping is based on heavy fuel oil (75%) and marine diesel oil(23%), in addition to LNG, LPG, methanol and a few other substances (2%). These current fuels are all fossil based, and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has set forth an ambition to cut emissions of CO2 by 40% ins 2030, 70% in 2050 and overall GHG by 50% in 2050 compared to 2008-levels.
A major challenge in replacing fossil fuels is the amount of energy one can carry in a given tank space. Fossil fuels have the highest energy density of all known fuels, and hydrogen has the lowest per unit volume. Ammonia is a derivative of hydrogen which has twice the energy density of liquid hydrogen, and thus it is a contender as fuel for some sectors of shipping.
The AMAZE (AMmoniA Zero Emission) project aims to develop and demonstrate a new multi-fuel, fuel-flexible, clean and efficient maritime engine. The project will enable the use of carbon-free fuels such as ammonia in order to make shipping more sustainable and to meet emission reduction targets in an efficient manner.
The AMAZE (AMmoniA Zero Emission) project aims to develop and demonstrate a new multi-fuel, fuel-flexible, clean and efficient thermal power cycle for maritime propulsion and power-generation. It consists of new, fundamental developments of the internal combustion engine; the most mature, safe, robust, cost-effective and energy-efficient technology for long-range maritime propulsion available today. The project will enable the use of carbon-free fuels with zero or extremely low pollutant emissions and it will demonstrate the multi/flexible-fuelling of the new engine by the use of ammonia (NH3) as the carbon-free primary fuel.