The LOUISE project aims to demonstrate Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) as an innovative and efficient CO2 capture technology in heat and power generation from waste-derived fuels.
Generation of heat and power from waste produces CO2. Capture of this CO2 will contribute to the needed reduction in CO2 emissions. Integrating CO2 capture in a waste-to-energy plant is costly and energy demanding, which reduces the plant efficiency. This project will develop and demonstrate CLC of solid waste-derived fuels up to 1 MW scale (TRL6). CLC is an innovative process for generation of heat and power with CO2 capture with possible efficiency and cost benefits. It is an oxy-fuel capture technology without cryogenic air separation. Instead, oxygen is separated from the air as an internal part of the CLC process. This is done using metal oxide materials. One highly relevant material is ilmenite, a mineral that is mined and processed at large scale in Norway. The project will validate the use of ilmenite in CLC of waste-derived fuels. To further reduce costs and to increase circularity, the project will evaluate possible utilization of the spent material after being used in the CLC process. The environmental impact of a CLC waste-to-energy plant will be assessed using life-cycle analysis. A main objective is to prepare for pre-commercial demonstration of the technology. Basic design and cost estimation of a 10 MW demonstration unit will therefore be established.
The LOUISE project will start autumn 2021 and end by autumn 2024. It is an ACT-3 project with collaboration between research and industry partners from Norway, Germany, Greece and Turkey. The Norwegian part of "LOUISE" is funded by CLIMIT. It involves SINTEF and NORSUS as research partners, and Kvitebjørn Bio-El AS, Geminor AS, Kronos Titan AS and Titania AS as industry partners.
The aim is to prepare for pre-commercial demonstration of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) for CO2 capture from solid waste-derived fuels (waste-to-energy WtE). CLC is an innovative, highly efficient combustion process for generation of power and heat providing a concentrated stream of CO2. A net electrical efficiency above 35 % and CO2 avoidance costs below 25 €/t can be expected for CLC of waste-derived fuels, which is a significant improvement compared to first generation CO2 capture technologies. The potential impact of enabling CLC for WtE is large, especially in urban areas where WtE plants are a major source of CO2. A main advantage of the CLC concept is the separation of the heat production from the release of problematic substances. This allows for higher steam temperatures and electrical efficiency, even for more low-quality fuels, such as waste.
The LOUISE project will:
• Demonstrate CLC of solid waste-derived fuels in a realistic environment with pilot tests at 150 kWth and 1 MWth scale (TRL 6) using ilmenite as the oxygen carrier due to its known favorable properties
• Elaborate the basic design and cost estimation of a 10 MWth demonstration unit (TRL 7).
• Validate new oxygen carriers and industrial by-product; investigate the interaction of oxygen carriers with impurities in the waste-derived fuels
• Develop concepts for utilizing spent oxygen carrier from CLC in metal production processes
• Determine the environmental impact of CLC waste-to-energy plants using life-cycle assessment methodology
• Develop business cases of commercial CLC plants firing waste-derived fuels on existing sites of the industrial partners in the four participating countries (Germany, Norway, Greece, Turkey)
• Investigate the potential for CO2 delivery from CLC WtE plants for permanent storage at Northern Lights (Longship) and/or CO2 utilisation