What did Scandinavians in the early twentieth-century mean when they used the term ‘Europe’? In what contexts, and to what ends, was it employed? And with what consequences? To answer these questions, my research will consider newspapers, state documents and the private papers of artists, academics and politicians, mapping out the evolving discourses around the term. The turbulent politics of the period provoked heated clashes between competing visions for a future continental order, and infused the term with new value-laden connotation. While these debates are well documented in Europe’s centres, detailed studies on its peripheries are still lacking. Yet there too, ‘Europe’ was relevant to local identities, geostrategic thinking and the policy preferences of internationally minded parliamentarians. This study will help to integrate Scandinavia into the wider story of Europe and help clarify why the Scandinavian countries took different paths to European integration after World War II.