Russia is a key player in the international climate regime: the fourth largest emitter in the world and a leading energy exporter as well as a traditional veto player in climate talks and holder of environmentally questionable surplus emission permits. Ho wever, the marginality of climate policy in domestic debate and fears of emission caps limiting economic growth make Moscow reluctant to commit to meaningful emission targets. This research explores the internal constraints and dynamics in Russian policy formation in order to understand the conditions for change in Russia's emissions trends and the development of negotiation positions with implications for future international climate agreements. First, the drivers of emission trends are analysed and dome stic interest groups acting as veto players hidden in the 'black box' of Russian policy-making process explored. Second, this knowledge is applied to explain Russia's position and tactics in climate negotiations, and evaluate the attractiveness of potenti al compromises in climate negotiations to Russia. Russia is compared with other key players, the US, China and the EU, through the same theoretical approach applied in FNIs CHANGE project funded by Norklima.