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TRANSPORT-Transport 2025

Hybrid and other configurations for environmentally Friendly Transport

Alternative title: Potensiale for utslipp og kostnads reduksjoner ved å ta i bruk hybride maskin teknologier ombord i skip

Awarded: NOK 2.5 mill.

Project Number:


Application Type:

Project Period:

2014 - 2016

Funding received from:

The study analyses the potential for reductions in emissions and operational cost through introduction of hybrid engine technologies. Ships emit both to air and sea, and the main source of these emissions is the exhaust gas from combustion engines. The basic principle of a combustion engine is that a large amount of compressed air mixed with a small amount of fuel is ignited, to yield mechanical energy through a shaft and hot exhaust gas. More than 90 % of the exhaust gas will be air, while the remaining parts will be gases and particles that influence either global warming or local environmental conditions. A basic premise of the HyFi-Transport project is that an engine operates efficiently regarding consumption and emissions in a "sweet spot", while at other loads it will be delivering less efficiently. Acknowledging that vessels will operate at loads varying over time thus is an important part of equipping them engine wise. The important example of a hybrid configuration in our time thus reflects: -Valuation of local air pollution, greenhouse gases and fuels which together make slow-steaming quite important; Recognition that vessels will need about the same maximum power capacity, even if it is more rarely used; With additional power and flexibility in auxiliary engines and batteries, the main engine can be smaller and optimized for lower loads. In this study hybrid technologies include: battery storage of energy to deliver power in peak periods; one or multiple engines of different sizes, cold iron ing in port by vessel batteries, propulsion at sea by electricity from batteries only, and power management systems. At high values of oil prices or emissions, vessels will be moving much below their design speeds, running at 25% or 40% of engine capacity. There, vessels run rather inefficiently from the point of view of delivering horsepowers per unit of fuel or emissions. The benefits of equipping such a vessel with electric power and battery are that it can be given a smaller main engine and optimized for lower load, a point demonstrated in Lindstad et al: Reducing Cost and Environmental Impacts through Hybrid Power Options. HyFi transport demonstrates with more examples, all having in common the analysis of varying load requirements, valuations of emissions, and real operating conditions. Offshore supply vessels, for instance, share a need for extraordinary random access capacity, dry- and we bulk carriers need power for certain weather situations, etc. The fact that even for ordinary tramp vessels like bulk (wet or dry) carriers, hybrid engine configurations can make sense will surprise many, given their very ordinary general operating patterns. It is the fact that they in recent years and expectedly in the future go quite slowly but still require capacity installed which accounts for this result. HyFi transport also serves to shift the emphasis in ship design and policy from idealized towards realistic usage conditions for the vessel. Typically, engines and vessels consume and pollute too much when under very high or low loads. This observation alone lends value to configurations with several engines, and in important cases to electric and battery solutions. The research is turns out to deliver important insights and solutions that can be useed to improve the competitive position of Norwegian vessel owners, operators and builders, as well as for the role that seagoing transport can play in Europe and in the world. Environmentally friendly solutions can be expected to be tested and demonstrated first in regions such as North Western Europe, a densely populated region with ample waterways. Just as importantly, HyFiTransport is motivated by the need for shippers to reduce high energy cost and cut transport emissions. One insight comes from the observation it is more important to find and to operate according to the sweet spot of engine operations, the higher is the value of fuel and emissions. The sweet spot also moves; you would ideally want to operate the vessel differently in port and in ECAs than in high seas. This point is made and illustrated in Lindstad et al, Maritime Shipping and Emissions: A three-layered damage based approach. It raises the question of whether dirty bunkers should be retained rather than banned for high seas operation, given its lower costs, its extremely low ecosystem damages, and its cooling elements regarding climate change. I similar, zone-dependent argument is made in Lindstad et al: Economic savings linked to future Arctic shipping are at odds with climate change mitigation. Lindstad SOx regulation - Intended and unintended consequences, further develops implications of Sox reductions. Eskeland and Lindstad Environmental taxation in transport generalizes to transport more generally the observation that transport optimized from environmental and climate perspectives yield solutions differentiated both with respect to equipment and its use.

This study will investigate the potential for reduction of emissions and operational cost at sea through introduction of hybrid engine technologies. An important idea is to shift the emphasis in ship design and policy from idealized towards realistic usag e conditions for the vessel. This leads to a realization that quite generally vessel and engine configurations can be environmentally inefficient in part by being insufficiently flexible. Typically, engines and vessels consume and pollute too much when un der very high or low loads. This study will investigate how emissions can be reduced through introduction of hybrid technologies. In this context hybrid means engines of different sizes, battery storage of energy to take peak power requirements, and powe r management systems with a more balanced focus on reducing emissions and energy consumption while maintaining a high safety standard. The assessment of the options will be based on real operational conditions for six different vessel types To fulfill th e objectives of this study it has been organized in seven work packages. 1.Establish the annual operational profile for the selected reference vessels types 2.Establish the characteristics and the emissions functions/curves for alternative engine configur ations and hybrid options. 3.Quantify fuel usage, cost and emissions for the reference vessels based on todays usage and technology (AS IS) 4.Calculate fuel, cost and emissions for each of the alternative techical options 5.Evaluate pro and cons for eac h technical option 6.Assess total potential for reduction of fuel, cost and emissions if the best options are chosen for all sea transport in Norwegian territorial waters. 7.To give recommendations for how these reduction can be achieved and further work .


TRANSPORT-Transport 2025