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FFL-JA-Forskningsmidlene for jordbruk og matindustri

Manure, fish slurry and digestate; from problem to farmers’ gold.

Alternative title: Husdyrgjødsel, fiskeslam og biorest, fra problem til bondens gull.

Awarded: NOK 3.6 mill.

Project Number:

294625

Application Type:

Project Period:

2019 - 2024

Location:

Partner countries:

Norway has large and very different waste streams, containing important nutrients. However, the different sectors, in agriculture, aquaculture, other businesses, and the wastes created by common citizens, are not well coupled for a better and holistic recirculation of the nutrients. We must find new solutions, since Norway does not possess enough productive soils, particularly for all phosphorus we must handle. Important perspectives for closing the circularity gaps, are the resource perspective, society security, and avoiding damages on ecosystems on land, and in seas. Main Goal of MAFIGOLD, was to develop solutions for recirculation of nutrients in organic waste streams in Norway. Reaching this aim, will contribute to decreasing negative environmental effects from wastes in agriculture and aquaculture. Sub goals 1) Develop and characterize organic fertilizers based on manure, food wastes and fish slurry (feed rests and faeces). 2) Evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers and soil amendments on soil and plants. 3) Estimate carbon footprint from the involved processes (de-watering, drying, transport, etc.), and the use of developed organic fertilizers. MAFIGOLD prioritized methods for extracting P from manure and making fertilizers and growing media based on dry- and wet fractions of manure and digestate. The paramount conclusion of MAFIGOLD is that recirculation of nutrients from organic waste, should be done by making attractive organic fertilizer products. However, the fertilizers often need to be improved by increasing the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio, which is often much too low in organic, untreated fertilizers. In MAFIGOLD, methods have been developed for de-watering manure, characterizing the separated fractions, and deciding where the nutrients are to be found after separation. Fertilizer types were produced and tested, based on fish sludge, manure, and bio-digestate from food waste/sewage sludge. The analyses show that the raw materials must be of high quality to meet the quality requirements for fertilizers and soil improvers. High levels of metals can be a problem in several waste fractions. "Hybrid fertilizer", organic components enriched with mineral N and K, can provide attractive fertilizer types that can justify transport. In trials and demonstration fields, the organic types of fertilizers have resulted in slightly lower amounts of plant-available nutrients than in mineral fertilizer with the same nutrient content, which must be considered when planning fertilizing of crops. Future work will continue to optimize the nutrient content of the organic fertilizers. MAFIGOLD provides solutions for how to use the dry fraction of cattle manure as a substitute for peat in growth media. This gives the opportunity to phase out the use of peat and will generate income in new areas of use for waste fractions. The growth media have yielded good results in the cultivation of vegetable plants, flowers, and nursery production. The fine adjustments will provide recipes that can be tested on a large scale and subsequently put into commercial production. Carbon footprints have been calculated for selected processes, including the production of struvite from manure and manure-based bio-digestate through precipitation from separated organic materials. The calculations through Life Cycle Assessments (LCA), showed a larger carbon footprint from process steps than from transport and spreading of fertilizer for all the analyzed systems. Key conclusions from the project: 1) Organic waste fractions can be converted into stable inorganic (struvite) or organic commercial fertilizer. 2) Organic fertilizer can partially replace mineral fertilizer. 3) Fertilizer products can be improved through enrichment with nitrogen and potassium. 4) The use of fertilizer and soil improvement must be adapted to soil, crops, and climatic conditions. 5) The dry fraction of manure is a good raw material as a replacement for peat in growth media. Effects: MAFIGOLD provides solutions for the use of the bio-digestate and utilizes the potential for recycling the nutrients in this. MAFIGOLD contributes with knowledge about the tracking of nutrients (macro and micronutrients) in the processes used for processing bio-digestate and manure and provides farmers with the knowledge they need to be able to plan fertilization using the new organic fertilizer products. MAFIGOLD also provides knowledge basis for establishing of new green jobs. Two scientific articles have been published (open access) in international journals, three are under preparation, four professional articles have been published, and 30 presentations have been given during the project period. Two bachelor's theses have been written based on the work in MAFIGOLD. So far, 10 technical reports have summarized the results from MAFIGOLD. These results will be taken further for publication in the form of NIBIO reports and articles for Norwegian stakeholders.

Norge har store strømmer av avfall, med opphav i jordbruk, fiskeoppdrett, andre næringer og privathusholdninger. I disse næringsstrømmene finnes store mengder næringsstoffer og karbon som bør brukes mer samordnet og med høyere mål for bedre resirkulering enn det vi har i dag. Imidlertid har vi ikke nok dyrkajord til å ta vare på alle næringsstoffene som finnes i ulike restråstoff. I deler av Europa finner vi minst like store problemer som i Norge, knyttet til å ha nok spredeareal for næringsrike avfallsfraksjoner. Resultatene fra MAFIGOLD er forventet å bidra til mer presis bruk av organiske gjødselstoffer, tilpasset plantenes næringsbehov, med store avlinger og god produktkvalitet og reduserte klima- og miljøbelastninger. Disse gevinstene innbefatter ikke minst bruken av næringsstoffer i biorest fra biogassanlegg for energiproduksjon. Resultatene fra MAFIGOLD gir løsninger for hvordan en kan foredle gjødsel og biorest fra biogassanlegg til nyttige og lønnsomme produkter, samtidig som en minker klimagassutslipp og andre negative miljøpåvirkninger fra disse prosessene. Prosjektet viser at organisk gjødsel, hybridgjødsel, som er organisk gjødsel anriket med mineralgjødsel, og mineralgjødsel, slik som struvitt og kalsiumfosfat, kan lages av husdyrgjødsel og biorest. MAFIGOLD gir dermed løsninger som kan gi bedre resirkulering av fosfor, samt nye bruksområder for biorest og bidrar dermed til en helhetlig satsing på biogassproduksjon. Produktene prosjektet har laget oppskrifter på kan transporteres fra steder med overskudd av næring, til steder med behov for næringsstoffer og organisk gjødsel. Resultatene fra MAFIGOLD viser at foredling av husdyrgjødsel og biorest kan gi verdifullt råstoff til erstatning av torv i vekstmedier. Det kan medføre vern av karbonlager i torvmyrer og kan bidra positivt til mål om bevaring av biomangfold. Resultatene fra MAFIGOLD viser også mulighetene for økt verdiskaping og bærekraft i primærnæringene. Lønnsom produksjon av nye produkter kan betale for økte kostnader i handteringen av husdyrgjødsel, fiskeslam og annet avfall. Skal resultatene fra MAFIGOLD realiseres, er det imidlertid nødvendig å opprette nye virksomheter, slik som biogassfabrikker, gjødselfabrikker, med tilhørende infrastruktur og grønne arbeidsplasser. NIBIO har i prosjektperioden blitt med i to EU-prosjekt som viderefører arbeidet i MAFIGOLD. ECONUTRI har som mål å redusere tap av karbon, nitrogen og fosfor, mens Hort2thefuture skal tilpasse og teste bærekraftige produkter basert på organisk avfall, for å redusere ressursbruken i hagebruksproduksjon. MAFIGOLD bidrar dermed til at Norge deltar i det europeiske arbeidet på området, med utvikling og utveksling av kunnskap for gode løsninger til økt og bærekraftig resirkulering av ressurser i restprodukter og avfall.

This project addresses the whole value chain for improved nutrient recirculation in agriculture, with an emphasis on phosphorus. By using biomass more efficiently, soil quality may be improved and emission of greenhouse gasses from Norwegian agriculture decreased. We will firstly develop technical solutions for de-watering, de-salting, drying and logistics for fish sludge, manure and biogas digestate, before processing pellets or granules of fertilizers, as well as, refining methods to transform those organic fractions into fertilizers, soil amendments and growing media. Secondly, we will optimize crop management practices for improved nutrient efficient use of these products. Finally, we will calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions from processing, transport and utilisation chains of those products, applying life cycle assessment (LCA). By these components, we address a more efficient use of renewable biomass from the agricultural and marine sectors as plant fertilizers and soil amendments, new knowledge of fertilization strategies and their soil ecosystem responses, and definition of methods to take advantage of those organic materials, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The industrial partners will contribute with their knowledge and commercial interests in these topics, to ensure the sector-based relevance of the project. In total, this project offers advancements in the refinement of organic materials into plant fertilizer, including supply chains, to increase the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorous recycling, expand sustainability and increase productivity and competitiveness in the agricultural sector in Norway.

Funding scheme:

FFL-JA-Forskningsmidlene for jordbruk og matindustri