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HAVBRUK2-Stort program for havbruksforskning

Recycling of rest raw materials from bio-based industry by production of low trophic Crustaceans (Gammaridae) for new marine ingredients

Alternative title: Resirkulering av restråstoff fra bio-baserte næringer ved dyrking av lavtrofiske krepsdyr til nye marine ingredienser (BIOCYCLES)

Awarded: NOK 9.5 mill.

Project Number:

295063

Application Type:

Project Period:

2019 - 2022

Subject Fields:

Partner countries:

BIOCYCLES aims to increase the sustainability of today's bio-based industries by creating a new biomarine production based on cultivation of crustaceans that recycles and fully utilizes rest raw materials and converts them into new bioresources. The basis of a modern bioeconomy is high resource efficiency and recycling of nutrients. A large portion of bio-based organic residues are currently disposed or used for low value applications such as biogas or energy. Cultivation of low trophic organisms is a highly relevant approach to increase the value of bio-based rest raw materials and to recycle nutrients from such. A novel group of marine low-trophic organisms with great potential for commercial production of marine biomass are the small crustaceans Gammaridaes, which can be cultured on nutritionally poor diets and result in highly nutritious biomass, and can represent excellent sources of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, compounds whose demand is currently not met by supply. Gammarids (Echinogammarus marinus) have been harvested from the wild and have been cultivated at SINTEF Ocean. Initially, different substrates were tested to see if the Gammarids accepted them as feed. The first growth experiments showed that newly hatched Gammarids were able to grow solely on residues from potatoes. Interestingly, the results show that the long chain fatty acids DHA and EPA were present in the animals, even though such fatty acids were not provided by the diet. The capability of Gammaridae to biosynthesize omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) has been investigated, as also previous results have indicated that Gammaridae may be able to biosynthesize LC-PUFAs. The results of the capacities of E. marinus for LC-PUFA biosynthesis have been published, and results are being compared with those of another marine gammarids such as Gammarus locusta, as well as freshwater species such as Gammarus pulex. In the second growth experiment, where young individuals were cultivated on macroalgae and potatoe residues, both low survival and growth were observed. In comparison, G.locusta juveniles in similar tanks showed significantly better growth. These results adds evidence to previous results that have shown that it is more challenging to cultivate E.marinus than G.locusta, and that the latter possibly has higher potential for use in cultivation. One subgoal of the project is to evaluate the possibility to recycle nutrients in effluents from the cultivation tanks, by an external or integrated microalgae production system. Since last reporting period, the level of nutrients in effluents have been analyzed (such as nitrogen-compounds, phosphorous, sulphates, in addition to minerals). The results show that the concentrations of nutrients in the effluents are too low for use in microalgae growth in the current cultivation tanks. Work is in progress to analyze nutrient composition in both production water and faeces in production systems with conditions (densities, water flow) more relevant for a future commercial production of Gammarids. The chemical composition og Gammarid biomass could make it suitable to use as aquafeed directly, but it is also an interesting biomass for other, more high value applications. In WP3 experiments have been performed to evaluate different processing methods to produce ingredients from the Gammarids and to evaluate possible markets for such. Separation of different components, such as lipids, proteins and shells, are important to produce high value and stable marine ingredients, both for use in feed, food or as health supplements. The results show that there where large variations in the yields and quality of fractions from the different technologies. By using an enzymatic hydrolysis process, three fractions were produced, i.e. a hydrolysate with high protein content and low fat content, a lipid rich meal (sediment), and a shell fraction. The lipid content is probably too low for effective separation without the use of solvents. Analyses of the different fractions are still ongoing. In WP4 a review of literature on driving forces in new industry formation and transformation processes is under production. The work on the industrialization has been extended to a more comparative analysis of alternative new sources of proteins where Gammaridae forms one alternative. The results from interview indicates general lack of knowledge of the alternative new protein sources. Project participants have contributed to a review on side stream reusage, recirculation and bio-transformation performed in cooperation with another researcher project on insect production, with particular emphasis on regulation. First test of RRI key parameters through interviews with experts on circular bioeconomy has been performed. The reports on RRI for analogous cases are used to determine the final approach. Planned collection of data through interviews and surveys in combination with a workshop (planned late 2021 or early 2022).

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BIOCYCLES aims to increase the sustainability of today's bio-based industries by creating a new biomarine production based on cultivation of crustaceans that recycles and fully utilizes rest raw materials and converts them into new bioresources. The basis of a modern bioeconomy is high resource efficiency and recycling of nutrients. A large portion of bio-based organic residues are currently used for low value applications such as biogas or energy. Cultivation of low trophic organisms is a highly relevant and innvoative approach to increase the value of bio-based rest raw materials and to recycle nutrients from them. Marine low-trophic organisms with great potential for commercial production of marine biomass are the small crustaceans Gammaridaes, which can be cultured on nutritionally poor diets – and result in highly nutritious biomass. The lipids, mainly composed of omega-3 rich phospholipids, are probably one of the most interesting fractions, followed by proteins and carotenoids. Importantly there exist strong molecular evidence suggesting that Gammaridaes have enzymatic capability to biosynthesise omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) de novo and, with optimized culture protocols, Gammaridaes can represent excellent sources of these nutrients. BIOCYCLES will develop handling and pre-treatment strategies for different bio-based rest raw materials from forestry, aquaculture and agriculture to obtain suitable substrates for the Gammaridaes. Cultivation conditions will be optimized, and sustainable processing technologies for Gammaridae will be developed, to extract and produce marine ingredients suitable for e.g. food or feed. The possibilities and consequences of upscaling selected production processes will be evaluated in an environmental, social and economic perspective. The project group consist of highly experienced researchers covering a broad range of scientific disciplines – actively involving relevant industries and stakeholders in the project.

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Funding scheme:

HAVBRUK2-Stort program for havbruksforskning