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SAMRISK-2-Samfunnssikkerhet og risiko

LAW22JULY: RIPPLES (Rights, Institutions, Procedures, Participation, Litigation:Embedding Security)

Alternative title: LAW22JULY: Rettigheter, institusjoner, prosedyrer, deltagelse og rettsprosesser etter terror

Awarded: NOK 12.0 mill.

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Project Period:

2020 - 2024


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Combining socio-legal approaches, doctrinal law, ethics and urban studies, this interdisciplinary project highlights some of the many legal implications and processes in the aftermath of the 22. July 2011 attack in Norway, while embedding a comparative unit of terror attacks in Manchester, England. The second year of the project was affected by Covid-19. The 10-year commemoration event and fieldwork opportunities were particularly impacted by the pandemic, as structural changes were needed to facilitate research, communication and dissemination online. Two research assistants and a postdoctoral fellow have been hired, and master thesis grants have been announced. Furthermore, the project has been expanded to include associated members with special competence in research on victims' rights, international law and digital dissemination. The project coordinator partook in the official 10-year commemoration at Utøya in July 2021 and at a commemoration organized by C-REX in June. The project has actively contributed to academic and public dissemination in 2021. We have published one article overviewing the legal ramifications of the attack in a 22. July special issue of Norsk Sosiologisk Tidsskrift. Furthermore, elements from the article were published as two English language blog posts, and a reworked version will be published as an English language working paper. Additionally, the project has contributed with an op-ed concerning the responsibility of academic professionals to communicate key questions concerning 22. July in an academic learning environment. The project members have contributed to four Norwegian and English language podcasts about transitional justice, the legal aspects of 22. July, commemoration and securitization. The project was presented at a 22. July Support Group board meeting. Applying perspectives of the rule of law, "transitional justice", and a broad definition of urban security, the Norwegian project unit investigates the legal contestations of the re-building of the Government Quarters, commemoration and memorials, and welfare provisions of survivors, their families and the bereaved. Disputes about the construction of memorials at Utøyakaia have been judicialized parallel to the legal processes of the demolition of "Y-blokka". Legal disputes concerning the renaming of streets in honor of victims are currently ongoing, which the project is following closely. The project has also started investigating the practice of victim compensation and welfare provision in the aftermath of 22. July. The project investigates the legal limitations of who receives rights to compensation and provision. As RIPPLES is one of the very few projects to intersect perspectives of health, security and extremism after 22. July, we aim to contribute to creating a platform for social science and legal research on the topics we cover. The primary contribution of the project has been evidenced as four academic working seminars organized around the focus areas of the project: the Government Quarters, memorials, welfare, justice, and the rule of law. The seminars have taken place digitally on zoom between April and September 2021. For each seminar, we have invited central academic professionals to contribute, including members of the project group. The seminars have also generated new perspectives relevant to the project, and as a result, e.g. gender perspectives will be included as a transverse perspective going forth.

22 July 2011, Anders Behring Breivik massacred 77 people in a terrorist attack commonly referred to in Norway as '22 July'. The State responded with a rule of law approach to rebuild societal security. Yet beyond the criminal trial, the legal responses, including bureaucratic practices and regulatory techniques, have not been researched. To enhance future preparedness and public accountability, this knowledge gap must be bridged. Asking 'what is the role of legal responses in rebuilding and strengthening societal security after violent extremist attacks', this interdisciplinary, qualitative project develops a conceptual and empirical basis for exploring the legal ripple effects of 22 July, implicating multiple fields of public and private law. A study of responses to terror attacks in Manchester in 1992, 1996 and 2017 provides a comparative frame. The project is developed around three work packages: 1. Urban security: The role of law in the reconstruction of post-terrorism space and the securitization of urban space and urban life 2. Citizenship and rights: The role of welfare provision (livelihood/compensation) as contributors to societal security and resilience 3. Rule of law: political economy, societal security, and the resilience of the rule of law WP 1-3 will produce 6 case studies serving as the basis for articles, policy briefs, blog posts, op eds and a pedagogic pilot concept for higher education. Project partners are PRIO, Queen Mary UCL, U Warwick and U Manchester. The project team and advisory board consist of leading socio-legal, legal, security and urban studies scholars, with broad experience in research and policy-making on 22 July, societal security, and welfare and urban security implications of terrorism, and PhD and MAs. The objective is to produce high-quality scholarship and effective policy advice as well as publicly accessible documentation of the legal responses to these events, engaging all stakeholders in knowledge-based conversations.

Publications from Cristin

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SAMRISK-2-Samfunnssikkerhet og risiko