Understanding of the molecular basis of most diseases will not be feasible without a comprehensive and rigourous analysis of the function of the genes at the cellular and subcellular levels. Once genes and proteins have been identified in a particular bi ological context with the techniques of genomics and proteomics, it will be necessary to determine their expression patterns in tissues and at the subcellular level. The processes are not analyzed at the level of single genes, instead, organelles, cells a nd organisms are seen as genomes at work. Combination of ”functional studies” (physiology, cell biology, developmental biology etc.) with genomics and proteomics is vital if we have to transform speculation about what particular genes and gene networks and their homologues/paralogues might do, into a more sophisitcated, rigorous, hypothesis-driven analysis of biological processes. This high-throughput analysis will only be possible through the use of in situ hybridiza tion techniques (mRNA), in vivo fluorescence analysis (proteins) in cells/tissues, study protein-protein interactions in living cells (FRAP and FRET). These analyses rquire the late state-of-the-art equipment for automated in situ hybridization and digi tal and confocal microscopic imaging of living cells, combined with high-throughput extraction systems for DNA, cells and tissues.